What is Artesian Water?

Artesian Water is water collected from a drilled well into an aquifer. This water is confined by a layer of clay or rock, which then pressurizes the water enough to allow it to rise up through the ground without mechanical pumps.

What is Drinking Water?

Drinking Water is according to the FDA water that does not have any added sweeteners or additives (other than flavors, extracts or essences). It must not contain calories and must be sugar-free. Any flavors or extracts that are added to the water must be less than 1% of the final product. If it is more than 1% then the beverage is no longer considered drinking water, but is considered a "soft drink".

What is Fluoridated Water?

Mineral Water is water that contains no less than 250 parts per million of dissolved solids. This water is different from other bottled water by its constant level and proportions of mineral and other trace elements at the point of its emergence from source. For water to be considered mineral water, no minerals can be added to the product. If the total dissolved solids is below 500 parts per million, or it is greater than 1,500 parts per million, then the statement "low mineral content" or "high mineral content" must appear on the label. It should be noted that this is different than the European definition. In Europe all Natural Spring Waters with a dissolved solids of 0 to 500 mg/liter are considered Mineral Water with Low Mineral Content.

What is Mineral Water?

Bottled water containing not less than 250 parts per million total dissolved solids may be labeled as mineral water. Mineral water is distinguished from other types of bottled water by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source. No minerals can be added to this product. If the total dissolved solids (TDS) content of mineral water is below 500 ppm, or it is greater than 1,500 ppm, the statement "low mineral content" or "high mineral content," respectively, must appear on the principal display panel. If the TDS of mineral water is between 500 and 1,500 ppm, no additional statements are needed. Note: this contrasts to the European definition, where all Natual Spring Waters with a TDS of 0 to 500 mg/liter are considederd Mineral with Low Mineral Content (or just mineral waters).

What is Municipal Source Water?

Municipal Source Water is water bottled from a municipal source and must be clearly labeled. The only time this requirement is dropped is if the municipal water was used, but then treated and processes so that it can be labeled as distilled or purified.

What is Purified / Distilled / Deionized / Reverse Osmosis Water?

Purified / Distilled / Deionized / Reverse Osmosis Water is water that has been produced by a process such as distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes.

What is Soda / Seltzer / Tonic Water?

Soda / Seltzer / Tonic Water are not considered bottled waters. Rather, they are regulated separately, may contain sugar and calories, and are considered soft drinks.

What is Sparkling Water?

Sparkling Water is water that contains natural or added C02 in the same amount the water had when it emerged from its source.

What is Spring Water?

Spring Watrer is water that is collected from a source underground. It is collected from a bored hold that taps the source of the spring. Although it usually requires minimal treatment before it is bottled, it must retain the same physical properties and composition as the natural spring water from which it originates.

What is Sterile Water?

Sterile Water is water that must meet "sterility tests" set by the U.S. Government.

What is Structured Micro-Cluster Waters?

Structured Micro-Cluster Waters is water that is created at the molecular level. Engineers Bill and Mike Holloway discovered Penta (tm) water during an experiment. When they were attempting to remove dissolved solids from water, they discovered that their water maintained its micro-clustered molecular state, which only happened for unsustainable period of time previously. But, their water stayed in this micro-clustered state which allows it to hydrate cells more effectively.

What is Well Water?

Well Water is water that is pumped or collected using mechanical mean from a groundwater aquifer (a water-bearing rock or soil formation located underground)

What is the pH value of the Water?

The PH indicates the degree of alkalinity (acidity) of the water. The acid field is between 0 and 7. Above 7, it is “alkaline”.

What is the Hardness value of the Water?

The HARDNESS, measured in French grades (F), indicates the presence of calcium and magnesium in the water. In other words, whether the water is more or less calcareous. According to the European Community regulations, waters with a hardness of less than 30 F, are considered “soft”, i.e. moderately calcareous.

What effect does Magnesium have in Water?

An adult requires between 300 and 400 mg magnesium per day. Magnesium is present in almost all human cells. Magnesium activates the enzymes for producing energy, plays a role in the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscular system and ensures regular contraction of muscles. It is also important for bone structure, it expands the blood vessels thus preventing the risk of heart attack. Lack of magnesium frequently leads to nervousness, lack of concentration, dizziness and headache through to migraine. An indication of magnesium deficiency when taking part in sport can be cramps in the calves.

What effect does Calcium have in Water?

The average daily requirement of calcium is approximately 800 mg. Babies require less, 15- to 19-year olds require substantially more. Calcium is multi-talented: it stabilises bone structure, teeth and cell membranes, it ensures transmission of impulses in the nerves and muscles, and it fulfils important functions to prevent blood clotting. Calcium has a balancing effect for numerous skin allergies. If the body does not have an adequate supply of calcium there is decalcification of the bones (osteoporosis): the risk of fracture increases. Also, damage to the teeth, hair and nails often results from calcium deficiency.

What effect does Potassium have in Water?

Depending on demand the daily requirement of potassium is between 2 and 4 g. Since potassium promotes cell growth, children and young people should have an adequate intake of potassium. Potassium regulates the balance and pressure of water between the cells and ensures that the individual cells are adequately supplied with food. Potassium is of special importance for muscle contraction as well as formation and conduction of impulses of the heart. Potassium deficiency is indicated by a weakness of the skeletal musculature and tiredness of the smooth musculature. In advanced stages it can lead to intestinal paralysis and functional disorders of the heart.

What effect does Sodium have in Water?

The average daily requirement of sodium is to a large extent dependent on the amount of excretion. With particularly severe physical stress normal daily requirement increases from approximately 3 g to 15 g and more. Sodium chloride (cooking salt) is significantly involved in regulating water balance. It always maintains the optimal pressure in body fluids (particularly in the blood serum) and thus ensures tissue tension. Sodium influences the metabolism of the heart and plays a role in co-ordination the regular contractions of the heart muscle. Under normal living conditions and eating habits, salt or sodium deficiency is scarcely possible nowadays: salt is an integral part of numerous foodstuffs, especially processed foodstuffs. Incidentally: the widely-held opinion that cooking salt contributes to high blood pressure only applies to approximately 20% of all people. The other 80% can definitely consume cooking salt - the body has regulation mechanisms to control the cooking salt content. Frequently, the real cause of high blood pressure is being overweight or too much stress. Additionally, a pinch of salt on your egg in the morning contains more sodium chloride than the amount you get by drinking your daily recommended amount of Apollinaris.

What effect does Phosphorus have in Water?

Daily consumption of phosphorous should be approximately 0.8 bis 1.4 g. Together with calcium, phosphorous is involved in the structure of the skeletal framework and the teeth. For 15- to 20-year olds, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding there is therefore increased daily need. Organic phosphoric acid compounds are the building blocks of nucleic acids and thus integral components of DNA, the carrier of genetic information. Phosphorous compounds act as energy transmitters and as »neurotransmitters« (transport of substances through the cell membranes). Since phosphorous occurs in practically all foodstuffs, phosphorous deficiency is very rare. Damage can occur to the kidney tissue if there is continuous high intake of phosphorous (more than 4 g per day) simultaneously with a high intake of calcium.

What effect does Sulphate have in Water?

Sulphates are the salts of sulphur. They have a detoxifying effect on the liver and stimulate the function of the gall bladder and thus the digestive function as well. In high doses, they have a laxative effect. As an integral component of protein, sulphate is found in all foodstuffs containing protein such as fish, meat or milk products. Sulphates are absorbed by the body only in very small quantities. However, they bind water in the intestine together with magnesium or sodium, stimulate peristalsis and thus digestion. Therefore slightly bitter tasting mineral waters rich in sulphates are suitable after eating as »anti-alcoholic bitters«. Especially practical for car drivers.

What Effects do Trace Elements have in Water?

In addition to mineral substances there are many other trace elements which our body needs, such as iron, iodine, copper, fluoride or zinc. The recommended daily intake of trace elements is sometimes fractions of a milligram, sometimes a few milligram, depending on mineral substance. All trace elements carry out important tasks. Thus, iron is an integral component of the red blood colouring haemoglobin and is thus involved in the transport of oxygen in the blood. Iodine is involved in the production of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Copper plays an important role in the human immune system. A deficiency of trace elements can impair our health. On the other hand, an overdose can lead to toxic conditions under some circumstances. Apollinaris mineral water contributes to a healthy diet as a result of its balanced concentration of important trace elements

What is bottled water?

Bottled water is a great beverage choice for hydration and refreshment because of its consistent safety, quality, good taste and convenience. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fully regulates bottled water as a packaged food product and requires bottled water to adhere to FDA's extensive food safety, labeling and inspection requirements. Bottled water is also subject to state regulations and, at the industry level, members of the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) are required to follow the IBWA Model Code.

Water is classified as "bottled water" or "drinking water" when it meets all applicable federal and state standards, is sealed in a sanitary container and is sold for human consumption. By law, FDA standards for bottled water must be at least as stringent and protective of public health as standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public water systems.

Some beverages containing certain ingredients or additives may cause that product to be classified as a soft drink, dietary supplement or some other categorization. Soda water, seltzer water and tonic water are not considered bottled waters. They are regulated differently, may contain sugar and calories and are classified as soft drinks.


What are the different types of bottled water?

FDA has established a bottled water Standard of Identity to define the several different types of bottled water based on specific characteristics of the product. Bottled water products meeting the Standard of Identity may be labeled as bottled water or drinking water, or one or more of the following terms:

Spring Water - Bottled water derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth. Spring water must be collected only at the spring or through a borehole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. Spring water collected with the use of an external force must be from the same underground stratum as the spring and must have all the physical properties before treatment, and be of the same composition and quality as the water that flows naturally to the surface of the earth.

Purified Water - Water that has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes while meeting the definition of purified water in the United States Pharmacopoeia may be labeled as purified bottled water. Other suitable product names for bottled water treated by one of the above processes may include "distilled water" if it is produced by distillation, deionized water" if it is produced by deionization or "reverse osmosis water" if the process used is reverse osmosis. Alternatively, "___ drinking water" can be used with the blank being filled in with one of the terms defined in this paragraph (e.g., "purified drinking water" or "distilled drinking water").

Mineral Water - Bottled water containing not less than 250 parts per million total dissolved solids may be labeled as mineral water. Mineral water is distinguished from other types of bottled water by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source. No minerals can be added to this product.

Sparkling Bottled Water - Water that after treatment, and possible replacement with carbon dioxide, contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had as it emerged from the source. Sparkling bottled waters may be labeled as "sparkling drinking water," "sparkling mineral water," "sparkling spring water," etc.

Artesian Water/Artesian Well Water - Bottled water from a well that taps a confined aquifer (a water-bearing underground layer of rock or sand) in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.

Well Water - Bottled water from a hole bored, drilled or otherwise constructed in the ground, which taps the water aquifer.


How do I know my water is safe?

Consumers can trust that bottled water is safe for many reasons. First, bottled water is strictly regulated at the federal level by FDA and at the state level by state agencies. By law, FDA standards for bottled water must be at least as stringent and protective of public health as standards set by EPA for public water systems. This helps ensure that bottled water sold in the United States meets stringent standards for safety, quality and labeling. In addition, members of IBWA must meet strict industry standards required by the IBWA Model Code, which in several cases are stricter than FDA, state or EPA's public drinking water standards. To help ensure that bottled water is as safe and of the highest quality possible, all IBWA members use one or more of the following practices: source protection and monitoring, reverse osmosis, distillation, filtration, ozonation and ultraviolet light.


How is bottled water different from tap water?

Bottled water is produced and distributed as a packaged food product and made specifically for drinking. As a packaged food product, bottled water must adhere to FDA Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) required of all FDA-regulated food products as well as specific GMPs unique to bottled water production and packaging. GMPs require that each container of bottled water

is produced in a sanitary environment and packaged in sanitary, safety sealed containers that are approved by FDA for food contact. Bottled water is also subject to FDA food recall, misbranding and food adulteration provisions, which help ensure that consumers receive safe, high quality bottled water and protects consumers from substandard products.

In addition, members of the IBWA abide by the IBWA Model Code, which includes a voluntary system called HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points). This system was developed byFDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and adopted by IBWA as a science-based approach to helping ensure safety in every step of the bottled water process.

Taste is another reason consumers choose bottled water. Chlorine is most often used to disinfect tap water and can leave an aftertaste. Some bottlers use ozonation, a form of supercharged oxygen and/or ultraviolet light as the final disinfecting agent, neither of which leaves an aftertaste.

Bottled water provides consumers with consistent safety, high quality, good taste and convenient portability.To help ensure that bottled water is safe and of the highest quality possible, all IBWA members use one or more of the following steps found in a multi-barrier approach: source protection and monitoring, reverse osmosis, distillation, filtration, ozonation and disinfection.


What is Cryptosporidium? Is it in my bottled water?

Cryptosporidium is a waterborne parasite that lives in animals and can be passed into surface water through their waste. Cryptosporidia from animal waste have been found in rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs and many other types of surface water. FDA's definition of bottled water from ground water sources [21 CFR §165.110(a)(2)(ii)] states that "ground water must not be under direct influence of surface water," and therefore is not expected to contain Cryptosporidium.

According to FDA bottled water GMPs, bottled water companies are required to use approved sources. There are two types of sources from which bottled water can be drawn: The first consists of natural sources (e.g., springs and artesian wells). By law, these sources must be protected from surface intrusion and other environmental influences. This requirement helps ensure that surface water contaminants such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia are not present. The second source of bottled water consists approved potable municipal supplies. Bottled water companies that use these sources typically reprocess this water

using methods such as distillation, reverse osmosis, ozonation, deionization and

filtration. This ensures that the finished product is very different-in composition and taste-from the original source water.

All IBWA member companies that us municipal supplies are required by the IBWA Model Code to employ as a safeguard at least one of three processing methods recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for effective removal of microbial (surface water) contaminants, including Cryptosporidium. These processing methods are reverse osmosis, filtration and distillation. Ozonation and ultraviolet light may also be effective treatments for Cryptosporidium inactivation.



Is bottled water regulated?

Most certainly. The bottled water industry is regulated on three levels: federal, state and, for members of IBWA, at the industry level.

FDA regulations, coupled with state and industry standards, offer consumers assurance that the bottled water they purchase is stringently regulated and tested, and is of the highest quality. IBWA has been a long-standing proponent of sensible regulations for bottled water that help to further ensure safety and protect consumers. IBWA is active at all levels of local, state and federal government, assisting in the development of such regulations, where they help enhance public safety and product quality.

More on Bottled Water Regulations


Do imported waters have to meet the same regulations?

Yes. Any imported bottled water brand sold in the United States must meet all of the same federal and state regulations that apply to domestically produced bottled water brands.


Is bottled water regulated differently from tap water?

Yes. Bottled water is regulated as a packaged food product by FDA and must meet all applicable food packaging regulations. EPA regulates tap water as a utility.


How long can I store bottled water?

FDA has not established a shelf life for bottled water. IBWA advises consumers to store bottled water at room temperature (or cooler), out of direct sunlight and away from solvents and chemicals such as gasoline, paint thinners and dry cleaning chemicals. Bottled water can be used indefinitely if stored properly

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